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BACKWARD CHAINING

An inference method, used in automated theorem provers, proof assistants and other artificial intelligence applications, that is working backward from the goals. It starts with a list of goals and works backwards from the consequent to the antecedent to see if there is available data which support them.

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BACKWARD DIODE

A variation on a Zener diode with better conduction for small reverse biases than for forward bias voltages.

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BACKWARD EXPLICIT CONGESTION NOTIFICATION

One bit field in a frame relay or asynchronous transfer mode network that signals to anything receiving the frame that congestion is occurring in the opposite direction from the frame.

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BACKWARD HOLD

A method of interlocking the links of a switching chain.

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BACKWARD SHIFT, BACKWARD LEAD

Movement of the brushes of a commutating machine which reduces sparking on the commutator.

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BACKWARD SIGNALLING

Signaling between the called and calling end of a circuit.

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BACKWARD WAVE

A wave with group velocity directed opposite to the stream of electrons in a travelling wave tube.

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BACKWARD-WAVE TUBE

Type of microwave tube where electromagnetic energy flows in the opposite direction than the electrons in the beam.

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BACTERAEMIA

Medical condition characterized by the presence of the bacteria in the blood.

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BACTERIA

A large group of prokaryotic microorganisms. They are cosmopolitan organisms, that live in soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, Earth's crust, and other living organism. They have a wide range of shapes (most famous being rod and sphere). They were among the first life forms on Earth.

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