Replacement of one material in a product by another, such as wood by glass-reinforced plastic, or the latter by thermoplastic in small boats. Similarly, high-tensile steels for mild steel sheet in car bodies. See car body materials. Such replacement often demands substantial design changes to allow for different material properties. Motives include cost savings, rise in productivity, better properties or safety, eg polyethylene terephthalate for glass in beverage bottles,

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