Of point P. defined in terms of rectangular cartesian co-ordinates as follows. In the plane: r,0, where r is the distance OP from the origin P, and 0 is the angle between the .v-axis and OP. Spherical polars in three dimensions: r,0, />, where r is the distance OP, 0 is the angle between the 2-axis and OP ie the colatitude, and p is the angle between the x-axis and the projection OP on the .vy-plane ie the longitude. Cylindrical polars in three dimensions: r,0, z, where r is the projection of OP on the .vy-plane, 0 is the angle between the x-axis and that projection, 2 is the height above the xv-plane. It should be noted that these systems use the symbols in different senses. Other notations are sometimes used.

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