Tag Archives | Immunology

7S ANTIBODY

Type of immunoglobulin G (IgG) that has sedimentation coefficient 7s.

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ABO BLOOD GROUP SUBSTANCES

Genetically determined glycolipid and glycoprotein molecules tightly associated with ABO antigenic determinants of the same kind that can be found on the person's erythrocyte membrane. These substances are found in mucus.

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ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM

Most important system of classification of blood types. Kind and presence of 2 different antigens on the surface of the erythrocyte membrane determines 4 blood types: A, B, AB and O. Type A has antigen A on the erythrocyte surface and has anti-B antibodies in the serum; type B has antigen B on the blood cell surface and has anti-A antibodies in the serum, type AB has both A and B antigens on the erythrocyte membrane but it doesn't produce antibodies in serum, while type O doesn't have antigens on the erythrocyte surface, but it produces both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the serum. Blood types are important for transplantation. Type A can receive blood type A or O; type B - blood type B and O, type AB can receive all blood types: A, B, AB or O, while type O can receive only O type.

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ACCESSORY CELL

Different types of cells, part of immune system that work closely with T and B lymphocytes during immune response. Usually macrophages that process and present antigens.

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ACQUIRED IMMUNITY

System of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that recognize and eliminate pathogens from the body and prevent infection.

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ACTIVATED

Transformation of inactive molecules or cells into active forms when biochemical processes in the body require them. Proenzymes are converted into active enzymes via kinases (or other enzymes). T- and B-lymphocytes are activated via different cytokines.

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ACUTE PHASE SUBSTANCES

Plasma proteins whose level in the blood rises as a response to to inflammation, tissue injury or malignancy. They are secreted by neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages and include interleukins IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, and TNF-?.

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ADHESION MOLECULES

Transmembrane proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane. They help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Their intracellular domain interacts with the cytoskeleton, while an extracellular domain interacts with the same or different types of cell adhesion molecules. All of them are classified in four major groups: immunoglobulin superfamily, integrins, cadherins, and selectins.

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ADJUVANT

A pharmacological agent that modifies the effect of other agents, such as drug or vaccine. They form a depo from which the antigens are slowly released and enhance the recipient's immune response by activating macrophages. Some adjuvants are added in the form of minerals, while some other as an water-oil emulsion.

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AFFINITY

Measure of attraction between an antigen and an antibody, or hormone and its receptor.

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